In fact they are quite inefficient and due to bad design and build tolerances of certain crucial parts. You can however quite easily improve the efficiency and thus the range of these systems by using a tuned antenna. You can even quite easily build your own! In this guide I will show how to make two designs.
To be able to calculate you need to know on what exact frequency your transmitter is operating. For an example; on channel 3 my transmitter is transmitting on MHz. Simply take the answer times So take the answer times 0, Instead a half or quarter length is chosen. To simplify things for you I made a couple of simple calculators that you simply put in the frequency in MHz and it outputs the right antenna length for you.
These calculators can be found in each of the antenna design parts of this guide. To make this antenna you need 1.
Start out by disassembling the stock antenna, which is quite easy, simply unscrew the plastic base. Now that you know what the length of your antenna should be, cut the piano wire to length and solder it to the signal part of your antenna. Make sure when making the antenna that you take into account all the parts of the signal wire that is not shielded by ground!
Not just the length of the piano wire, but all of the active parts. Otherwise the antenna will be to long and not work well on your frequency. The range of my system was greatly increased with the new antenna, and the temperature of the video TX was lowered.
This is a good place to start if your want to get started with antenna designing. This antenna is super easy to make, you only need a single-strand wire and a soldering iron. I use a wire that has a 0. I recommend soldering this antenna directly to the video transmitters PCB.
This reduces weight, improves reliability and increases overall efficiency. However removing the SMA connector requires a bit of soldering skill.
Be careful not to damage anything. Here is a picture of when I removed a connector from a mW 1. I use channel 4 on my 1. In the picture you can see the starting from the top half-wave whip, the stock and the quarter-wave lambda. Now solder the antenna to the output on the PCB. Super light weight, short, low air resistance and efficient.
Can you ask for more? I use the quarter-wave antenna in the videos above. The performance is excellent! Tuning your antenna To get the absolute maximum from your DIY antenna you can tune it using nothing more than a multimeter and some time. So why should you tune your antenna?
So how do you do it?
Usually it outputs 5V on full signal and 0.In my MHz projects I have been using a cheap 0. For any serious project that involved receiving data it seemed I needed the much better and more expensive RXB8 receiver. But as said, also the reach of the transmitter could use a bit of improvement. However, when mining the internet for a coil antenna trying to improve on the lengthy A reference to Ben's pdf back up would suffice to build it, but so is my picture and I can add my experience with it as well.
It is a so called coil loaded design consisting of 0. The picture gives a clear description: a length of 25 cm wire should be enough. At the base it is 17 mm long. Then goes into 16 turns over a 2. I just used a screwdriver. The results with this antenna are very good.
The distance with the cheap receiver as well as the transmitter that can be covered easily goes to 25 m with line of sight, but also in-house the distance will be increased reaching other rooms with concrete walls in between, were earlier 3 meters with line of sight would be pushing the limits already. I am not the only one with this experience.
Thank you for your article. First of all I must say that I am not an rf engineer but I do know how to perform some basic antenna measurements. Based on these results it looks to me that this antenna construction works better on MHz ISM band due to fact that antenna impedance is closest to 50 ohm at MHz. I have not tested this antenna in practice wtih a transmitter but I suppose that transmitter's output impedance is 50 ohm as normal.
I did reflection measurement S11 with my VNA and as you can see in results minimum power dB is reflected back from antenna at about Mhz ie. Smith chart shows that the impedance is then I am not saying that this antenna does not work on MHz band but from my point of view the best frequency band for this antenna is MHz supposing that the transmitter's output impedance is 50 ohm.
There seems to be no theory available for the calculations any more but perhaps somebody can explain the deviations Reply 6 months ago. Excellent post and great reply from Ari, thanks for both.
I'm trying to reconcile theory that I have found on the internet and the experiences of people here, so that I can make my own design. I would also like to share where I found the theory so others can follow too, as it seems quite tricky to find something that can string together all that's required to design your own.If you have been thinking about getting on to MHz 33cm Ham Bands or are active but want to find out more, this is the page you want to be.
I don't claim to be an expert in this area but I will share what I have learned, what I now know, what I use and why I picked what I picked. Hardware is very limited on this band, as are repeaters at this point and I think many are just scared due to lack of info.
I am hoping to change this a bit here. I would love to see more activity on this highly underutilized band! All you need is a technician license and you are good to go, do not need to be a general or extra to operate here so if you are licensed, you are ready to rock! The propagation is very similar to that of the 70cm band, in fact some people think it is better depending on where you operate, due to different absorption and paths the signal takes. If you are interested in this topic, check out my pages on Amateur Television.
As far as hardware there is two ways you can go about it. Build or modify hardware or something that can be re-programmed. I went the easy way about it. Here is a list of what is currently around and easiest to deal with:. Basically with minor exceptions comes down to Motorola vs. Kenwood or the Alinco if you can still find one. Both are good picks, but I decided to go the Motorola route after talking to people and hearing them for myself.
Keep in mind that since there is a lot of cellphone activity on or near these frequencies many times surplus cell phone tower gear, commonly found on eBay can be re-purposed.
Including Amplifiers, antennas and such. It is a goldmine! Remember the old MHz cordless phones? They were on MHz They are no longer made and they covered both the MHz band as well as the MHz 1.
Be ready to pay a pretty penny for a used one. Personally I think it was a mistake to discontinue this model.
900 MHz 8 dBi Omnidirectional Antenna
They are transverters so you can use your existing HF radio. And if you are lucky enough to own a FlexRadio, you get the waterfall and many extras. Here is the information on their MHz selection. Attach this to a modified cell amplifier and you will be in MHz heaven.
To Program the Motorola Units you will need both software and hardware. See Red Box below for more information on this. Very Important!Homemade WiFi booster - how to increase WiFi signal - How to extend WiFi signal strength
ODB in the software which you can find by an internet search, this will adjust the band limits. ODB file. Once you do, the software for both is very similar and lots of info on batlabs on this topic so I will not repeat it here. There are many free hex editors online, all will work. Just be sure to backup the original and follow the step by step instructions. If you have used a hex editor before, you can do this in under a minute easily.The optimal antenna positioning can be different from traditional 2.
The alignment of your TX and RX antennas affects signal strength and range a lot. There are two ends in a dipole antenna used in the R9M and Crossfire systems. One end is the antenna element and the other is ground. These antennas are pretty tough, and can take a few prop strikes and survive, but they are a little heavier and more expensive.
They are also easy to mount in a frame. Because we use two frequencies in different regions, i. Before we start, bear in mind to keep antenna as away from carbon fibre as you can. As shown in case 1, you get the full range of your RC system when both of your antennas are parallel to each other.
When your quad turns 90 degree, it goes into case 2, where one end of the RX antenna points at the TX, and your range will be reduced. Not that easy on a mini quad, but more doable on a wing or plane. The worst case scenario is case 3, where you now also turn yourself 90 degree, so the tips of the two antennas are pointing at each other. Anyway, this can be easily avoided by making sure you are always facing your aircraft, with your TX antenna placed vertically.
With T-Immortal style antennas, you can strap it to the arms with two zip ties, probably the easiest and most common way to install your antenna.
Its probably already been in the comments section already, but in the example you gave for how not to mount a crossfire dipole, probably the worst factor is the metalwork of the motors themselves, more than the proximity to the carbon fibre. The radiation pattern and SWR of a dipole is effected by nearby metal more than anything, especially when its in the same orientation as the elements themselves but a dipole wont really be effected by, say, the metal poll that it is mounted on, because its orientated 90 degrees to its axis.
I guess it would have to be ground-indepedent because of the lack of metal on a drone, but maybe not. Hey there. I have a Mhz immortal T antenna, if i go to the US and change my frequency to Mhz but keep the same antenna will my performance go down significantly?
Does it matter if the antennas are rotated relative to one another while still being parallel i. Yes, you get some signal reduction when turning one antenna away from the other even when they are parallel. What about the R9 with two flat antenna on the ends of two wires? Thank you! From Frsky, they should be have a color heatshrink indicating the frequency. Not sure how TBS differentiate it as I no longer use their system. But anyway when you buy any receiver or antenna, there should be an option where you can select which frequency you want.
Have you had a prop-strike on that contraption? So it seems to me, the only real protection from strikes is a tube of carbon fiber or steel, neither being a very good idea… Me, I just make sure to mount things where there is as slim chance as possible of a prop ever getting to them. In the L rx configuration, i assume the active element is in the vertical position, and ground out back, correct?
I mount the crossfire immortal T antennas in the vertical y axis plane out of the back of the quad, I have found this gives consistently the best link quality. I have 3 x and below crsf quads using the crsf nano rx The downside of this is that it takes more effort during the build. To stiffen up the pigtail section and reduce the likelihood of prop strikes I cut a 6mm OD PU tube along the axis then hot glue and heat shrink in place. Your email address will not be published.
Sign me up for the newsletter! The other form exists as loose wires like this. Stay away from carbon fibre! Different Antenna Positioning and Range The alignment of transmitter and receiver antennas can affect range.Dipoles are widely used on bands like 80 metres, 40 metres, 20 metres, 15 metres and 10 metres where they can provide excellent levels of performance. A dipole antenna can be a very effective antenna, providing a good level of performance especially if it is erected as high as reasonably possible and away from obstructions, etc.
Building am HF ham band dipole does not have to be expensive. Often the items needed can be salvaged from previous antennas, or bought for relatively small cost.
Wire, feeder, insulators and fixings are all that is required. Building the antenna and erecting it can provide a great insight into the aerials or antennas and how they work, and in this way the performance of the station can be enhanced even further.
The most straightforward way to install a dipole is as a horizontal antenna, although this is by no means the only way. Also a dipole is most commonly found as a half wavelength dipole, although this is not the only length that can be used. Feeding the dipole at a high current point, as in the case of centre feeding a half wave dipole means that it is fed at a current maximum pint on the antenna.
It is also possible to have longer lengths - antennas with lengths that are odd multiple of half wavelengths long also provide a low impedance. This means that a 40 metre dipole can also be used as a three half wavelength dipole on 15 metres. The basic half wave dipole itself is quite straightforward, consisting of a radiating element half a wavelength long and fed in the centre.
The diagram above gives the basic format for the antenna, but in reality the antenna will need to be erected between two supports. The diagram above shows a typical installation for a ham band dipole antenna. Often the supports may be a suitable point on a house and another support in the garden. On the house it can be possible to attach the dipole to the chimney, or other high point. Then another support may be a pole or even a tree.
There even may be another suitable building. It is possible to erect the antenna in many places, using the supports that are available or that can be erected. A little thought and ingenuity will provide a number of different options. If using a tree as a support, it must be remembered that the tree will move in the wind.
If the antenna wire becomes too tight as the wind moves the tree back and forth, it could break the wire. This must be taken into account, and there are several methods of overcoming this.
Typically coax fed dipoles are a half wavelength long as described above to give the required feed impedance. In order that the dipole is an electrical half wavelength long, it needs to be a certain length. This is not exactly the same as that of an electrical half wavelength in free space as factors like the end effect - an effect caused by the fact the wire does not go on for ever, the wire thickness and a host of other factors affect the length of the antenna.
In view of the fact that there are many variations in the calculation of the length of the antenna, and these even include the proximity to other objects and the local conditions, etc, it is always best to cut the antenna slightly longer than expected, and then trim it to provide the optimum performance. Also it may be that the dipole needs to be optimised for operation on a particular section of the band. The length will be slightly different for the best performance at the top of a band compared to the bottom of the band.
Often it depends upon whether Morse of SSB operation is envisaged.A few negative reviews can help to build trust, as it seems less like review fixing.
433 MHz Coil Loaded Antenna
There's a balance to be found definitely. Liz BroomfieldGood ideas here. I always ask my clients for a testimonial - I put the request in the text of the email I send out with my invoice, to make sure I ask automatically. I provide links to the first two so they can see what to do. I would not allow direct posting onto my website in case of spammers. I've not had a bad review yet (apart from "you didn't rewrite my essay", which kind of reflects more badly on the client.
Laura Galyer, Marketing Director, EMEA, APAC, South America at SensusThis is a really interesting post Mike. So this is a very helpful source to use to get reviews and discovering what kind of feedback customers have to offer. Glad to hear someone including caveats when recommending incentivising reviews - in our experience incentivised reviews are hard to separate from paid-for positive feedback in consumers' minds. I can't recommend 1 and 2 strongly enough: we've built up a business partly founded on reviews purely by working out the best way to ask for a review via email.
Nick's point about trust and third party review services is spot on. Needless to say, it's that trust that leads to conversions.
We use the third-party site Ratepoint to collect our reviews. I like it because it provides the user with a widget you can put on your website to collect reviews with ease, plus they provide you with an opportunity to address and resolve any poor reviews before posting them. This way I can post both good and bad, except that the bad ones also show our resolution to the complaint, a win-win for everyone.
It also gives you a widget to promote your reviews on your website. My company uses Feedbackstr to manage all of these aspects on one platform. I know enough people who handle all of these points (20. Why should the management of it be. I would recommend reading this blog to learn 5 ways to use UGC, including ratings and reviews, questions and answers, and customer photos to bolster your marketing efforts. You will receive a hand-picked digest of the latest and greatest articles, as well as snippets of new market data, best practice guides and trends research.
This material is for personal use only.I just hate to see people given poor health advice, when good choices from good advice can make such a huge difference in your life, help you handle everyday stresses and even large crises, by giving you confidence, strength, energy and overall health.
I've been a diabetic for almost 10 years now. The best advice i got was to cut back on starchy foods. White bread to sugar free wheat bread. I can usually hit my target sugars round 150 mgdl by lunch and less than 180 mgdl by dinner. My wife wont let me have any fruit now in whatever form.
Have been searching everywhere in the web for alternatives that dont involve sweeteners as i get really bad side effects from it, usually diarrhea. A common misconception in weight loss is that you need to eat less, when in reality the opposite holds true. If you restrict your calories, you will eventually slow your metabolism. I was in danger of developing Type 2 diabetes. I was advised to cut out sugar and to cut right down on carbohydrates.
Any carbs eaten should be wholemeal flour. I was told this was because carbohydrates are broken down in the body into glucose (sugar) Refined flour is metabolised quickly, wholemeal is slow burn and so you don't get a big glucose spike. I have lost a stone and a half and feel much better for it, I was thrilled to fit into a size 12 top today. It has taken 3 months to stop craving sugar now I can manage without. However, there are some great recipes in this book for families.
I've done a few of the main meal ones and we have all really enjoyed them. I agree with Karen, very confusing. Also the recommendation to use honey or maple syrup. Yes, honey and maple syrup do contain sugar but the sugar they contain is Fructose sugar- the sugars of fruits- which are not refined sugar and not considered harmful to health.