You will need to answer all questions and mark your answers on a separate answer sheet, unlike the listening test you will not be given extra time to transfer your answers to the answer sheet, so write your answers on the answer sheet at the same time. The IELTS academic readings are longer and use more complex vocabulary, sometimes there may be a diagram to complete or some kind of chart. Academic topics are taken from scientific journals or magazines for example.
The IELTS general reading test relates to everyday life such as work, school, home life, advertisements, technology, vacations, making an application and so on.Cambridge IELTS 11 Test 2 Reading passage 2 - Step by Step Answers
The last section of the general test is the most difficult. For both types of test, it is advised that you spend about 15 minutes on section 1 and 2 and 30 minutes on section 3. There are 3 passages with 40 questions in total. Lesson on Summary Completion Gap Fills. There are many different types of questions that could come up in this reading test. Each reading text has about 4 various types of questions. Sentence completion 2. Summary completion Gap Fills 6. Multiple choice 7.
List selection 8. Choose a title 9. Decide on a category Short answers Diagram labelling. This skill is useful for short answer questions or multiple choice questions, but for other question types, this might not work well. Understanding how things are paraphrased is a very important skill because in the text it will say one thing but in the answer choice it will use synonyms, this can really confuse students.Skimming and scanning are two very effective yet different strategies for speed-reading.
What is speed-reading? You may be used to read every word slowly and carefully to understand every sentence of the text. But how to read more, in less time? One way is to use speed-reading - quickly read the text according to your purpose, getting only the information you need.
Skimming means quickly reading the text to get only its main idea. To skim effectively, you need to read only a part of the material. You have already encountered skimming: when reading a long chapter of a book, or doing a research on a long article. In such case, you would probably read the first sentences of each paragraph, dropping down to the end of the paragraph.
Scanning means searching for specific phrases in the text to answer some questions. Now it's time for practice. First of all, let's practise skimming. When reading a text for the first time, you should skim over it to grasp the main idea. In this example, read the highlighted text and quickly look over the rest of the text you have about minutes :.
Electric-car drivers are saving the planet, right?
Their vehicles produce none of the pollutants that dinosaur-burning, fossil-fuel-powered machines do. That is the standard view, and governments around the world provide incentives to encourage the uptake of this new technology. That is why a Tesla owner got a rude shock when he went to import his vehicle into Singapore - the first person to do so. It does not have an exhaust to emit from. So what happened? This qualifies as the cleanest possible category of car in Singapore and entitles the owner to an incentive rather than a fine.
This is the elephant in the trunk of electric vehicles. Where and how the power is produced is not often considered, but perhaps it should be.
And as we still need power stations to produce such amount electric energy, the environmental impact is not so small as it seemed to be. But what about the bigger picture - should we be factoring in the emissions of power stations when working out how green an electric car is? The logical answer is yes. Emissions shifted elsewhere are still emissions, and CO2 impacts the global atmosphere wherever it is released.Computed tomography CT scanning is an extremely common imaging modality in modern medicine.
With advancements in technology, it is rapidly replacing many diagnostic radiographic procedures. In this article, we will outline the basic science behind CT scans, describe the principles of interpretationand highlight their advantages and drawbacks compared to other imaging techniques.
The scanner emits x-rays towards the patient from a variety of angles — and the detectors in the scanner measure the difference between the x-rays that are absorbed by the body, and x-rays that are transmitted through the body. This is called attenuation. The amount of attenuation is determined by the density of the imaged tissue, and they are individually assigned a Hounsfield Unit or CT Number.
Conventional x-rays provide the radiographer with a two-dimensional image, and require the patient to be moved manually to image the same region from a different angle. In contrast, because of the advanced mathematical algorithms involved with CT, the three-dimensional planes of the human body can be imaged and displayed on a monitor as stacked images, detailing the entirety of the field of interest. This is accomplished by acquiring projections from different angles and through a process known as reconstructionthe three-dimensional data is viewable on a two-dimensional monitor.
The data collected can theoretically never be a perfect replica of what is being scanned, but is a close enough representation to be used for medical diagnostic purposes.
Fig 1 — In CT scanning, three-dimensional planes of the human body can be imaged and displayed on a monitor as stacked images, detailing the entirety of the field of interest. The introduction of an intravenous radiofluorescent contrast into the bloodstream can be used for a variety of diagnostic purposes, for example:.
After approximately 7 minutes after an intravenous injection with iodinated CT contrast, the contrast begins to expel from the body via the urinary system. The contrast can be seen in the ureters going into the bladder creating a CT Urogram ; a procedure that is commonly replacing the traditional intravenous pyelogram seen in radiography.
Oral contrast can also be administered if investigation is required of the digestive system. Figure 2 — Contrast enhanced CT scan, demonstrating an abdominal aortic aneurysm. When interpreting at CT scan, it is important to determine the orientation.
Radiologists will often use images reconstructed in the coronal and sagittal plane to help supplement their diagnosis. The density of the body tissue determines the degree to which the x-rays are attenuated. In turn, this affects the brightness and contrast of the imaged tissues. This is quantified by the Hounsfield Scale of radiodensity. Tissues with a high Hounsfield score have a high attenuation coefficient, and so appear white:.
Intracranial bleeds are potentially life-threatening conditions, and occur most commonly as an acute or delayed response to trauma.
They can occur spontaneously from the rupture of cerebral aneurysms, but this is less common. CT scanning has evolved to become to mainstay of investigation of patients with a suspected intracranial bleed. There are four broad types of intracranial bleed:. These are arterial, and frequently related to blunt trauma. There may be a midline shift. CT scanning is the ideal imaging modality in emergency cases. It is often the choice of examination for trauma patients in the emergency room due to its quick scan times.
Academic Reading Practice Test With Answers Free PDF 50 Test Files Part 1 IELTS Exam
It is more efficient when an immediate diagnosis is required such as intracranial bleeds, dissection of a blood vessel, or renal stones.Paragraph C 3. Paragraph D 4. Paragraph E 5. Paragraph F 6. In the 19th century most towns were heavily fortified and the foundations of these walls are sometimes visible. Collecting tolls to enter and exit through the walls was a major source of revenue for the old town rulers, as were market fees.
The markets were generally located centrally and in small towns, while in large towns there were permanent stands made of corrugated iron or concrete.
In this first question, the word 'foundation' is in the topic sentence.
This does not automatically make 'vi' the correct answer. However, it is a good reason to flag this up as a possibility. The heading also refers to 'history', so the reference to '19th century' in the topic sentence tells us the paragraph is about the history.
A quick skim of the paragraph confirms this. The palaces were often very large.
Academic Reading - section 3
After colonization, many of the palaces were completely or partially demolished. Often the rulers built two storey houses for themselves using some of the palace grounds for government buildings. The topic setence mentions the palaces, which is where the rulers of Yaruba would likely live, and the heading mentioned the homes residences of the rulers, so it is likely to be ix. Reading the rest of the paragraph confirms that the whole paragraph talks generally about the palaces in Yoruna.
Don't be tricked by the 'colonisation' heading. This only refers to one sentence in the paragraph, not the whole paragraph. It is therefore a supporting point rather than the main idea. The town is divided into different sections.
In some towns these are regular, extending out from the center of the town like spokes on a wheel, while in others, where space is limited, they are more random. These vary in size considerably from single dwellings to up to thirty houses. They tend to be larger in the North. Large areas are devoted to government administrative buildings. Newer developments such as industrial or commercial areas or apartment housing for civil servants tends to be build on the edge of the town.This can take many forms.
Marine life, for example, is influenced by tidal patterns. Animals tend to be active or inactive depending on the position of the sun or moon. Numerous creatures, humans included, are largely diurnal — that is, they like to come out during the hours of sunlight. Nocturnal animals, such as bats and possums, prefer to forage by night.
A third group are known as crepuscular: they thrive in the low-light of dawn and dusk and remain inactive at other hours. When it comes to humans, chronobiologists are interested in what is known as the circadian rhythm.
This is the complete cycle our bodies are naturally geared to undergo within the passage of a twenty-four hour day. Aside from sleeping at night and waking during the day, each cycle involves many other factors such as changes in blood pressure and body temperature. Not everyone has an identical circadian rhythm. This is a benign variation within circadian rhythms known as a chronotype.
Scientists have limited abilities to create durable modifications of chronobiological demands. Recent therapeutic developments for humans such as artificial light machines and melatonin administration can reset our circadian rhythms, for example, but our bodies can tell the difference and health suffers when we breach these natural rhythms for extended periods of time. Plants appear no more malleable in this respect; studies demonstrate that vegetables grown in season and ripened on the tree are far higher in essential nutrients than those grown in greenhouses and ripened by laser.
Knowledge of chronobiological patterns can have many pragmatic implications for our day-to-day lives. While contemporary living can sometimes appear to subjugate biology — after all, who needs circadian rhythms when we have caffeine pills, energy drinks, shift work and cities that never sleep?
The average urban resident, for example, rouses at the eye-blearing time of 6. One study found that even rising at 7.
The optimum moment has been whittled down to 7. This disorients your circadian rhythm and puts your body in starvation mode.
The recommended course of action is to follow an intense workout with a carbohydrate-rich breakfast; the other way round and weight loss results are not as pronounced. Morning is also great for breaking out the vitamins.
Supplement absorption by the body is not temporal-dependent, but naturopath Pam Stone notes that the extra boost at breakfast helps us get energised for the day ahead. For improved absorption, Stone suggests pairing supplements with a food in which they are soluble and steering clear of caffeinated beverages. Finally, Stone warns to take care with storage; high potency is best for absorption, and warmth and humidity are known to deplete the potency of a supplement.
It is essential that, by the time you are ready to sleep, your body is rid of all traces.You may be looking for the general idea of the information on the page skim quickly through the informationor you may wish to scan for specific information.
In either case, the method is to sweep your eyes across the page slowly and smoothly, starting at the top left, and working your way across and down the page in a wavelike motion as in the illustration below.
Practise scanning by applying the scanning technique to this page and other pages of writing of your own choice. Did you understand the general idea of the topics on the page you just scanned? Did you move smoothly and steadily? Do not read every word and do not rush. You are simply guiding your eyes with your finger or pen, and picking up information as you go, occasionally stopping for a moment to read something important that you have found, and continuing slowly back and forth, across and down the page.
It takes a little practice at first, but it is the best way to move quickly through a text without getting stuck and wasting time reading a lot of unnecessary information.
You are more likely to find what you are looking for because you will have covered all parts of the page. When scanning, guide your eyes across the page by using your first 3 fingers, or your index finger alone, or even the tip of a pen or pencil.
This will prevent your eyes from wandering about on the page. You can increase your general reading speed too, by following your finger with your eyes across the page as you read. Many studies prove how much quicker people read when guiding their eyes across the page.
You might be surprised to discover how much faster you will be reading. Remember, you do not usually have time to read every word of the passage, especially if your reading speed is only average. A reading passage consists of a number of paragraphs, each of which has a main idea or topic that tells the reader more about the main topic of the passage.
You should make certain that you understand the topic of each of the paragraphs in the passage by searching for the topic sentences. The topic sentence is usually, but not always, the first sentence of a paragraph.
In fact, the topic sentence might be any one or two of the paragraph sentences. See also Writing Hint The introduction is a paragraph with a special purpose: it contains the main idea or topic of the entire passage. If the passage is an argument, it should also state the writer's opinion. Note that the first sentence of the introduction is usually the topic sentence. In addition, the conclusion often summarises the main points of the passage, and is often worth reading directly after looking at the introduction.Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet.
Prior to the 19th century, professional 1 did not exist and scientific research was largely carried out by amateurs. However, while 2 today is mostly the domain of professionals, a recent US survey highlighted the fact that amateurs play an important role in at least seven 3 and indeed many professionals are reliant on their 4 In areas such as astronomy, amateurs can be invaluable when making specific 5 on a global basis.
Write the correct letter A, B, C or D in boxes on your answer sheet. They are not, however, real IELTS tests; they are designed to practise exam technique to help students to face the IELTS test with confidence and to perform to the best of their ability.
If you use more than two words or words that are not in the passage, the answer will be marked wrong. Skim the passage and find out where the part that has been summarised begins. Read the text around each gap carefully. See if you can predict the answer or the kind of word s that you are looking for. Select the best word from the text for each gap.
Re-read the summary, with the words you have selected for each gap, to make sure that it makes sense both grammatically and in terms of meaning. Read through the questions, underlining the key words e. Question accidents. Scan the passage for the name of the first scientist. Read the text around the name carefully. Check for any opinions that are expressed by that person. Re-read the questions and see whether any of these express a similar idea to the opinions you have noted in the passage.
If you find an answer, skim the rest of the passage to see whether the same name occurs again. If so, repeat the above procedure.